Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock. It is a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite and originally formed deep under the sea by the compression of microscopic plankton that had settled to the sea floor. Chalk is common throughout Western Europe, where deposits underlie parts of France, and steep cliffs are often seen where they meet the sea in places such as the Dover cliffs on the Kent coast of the English Channel.
Chalk is mined for use in industry, such as for quicklime, bricks and builder’s putty, and in agriculture, for raising pH in soils with high acidity. It is also used for “blackboard chalk” for writing and drawing on various types of surfaces, although these can also be manufactured from other carbonate-based minerals, or gypsum.